Uniting democracies has been the key international political trend of the last hundred years. Understanding this trend and enabling it to continue is the key to world political development.
Streit Council Advisory Board Member Stanley R. Sloan on "Rebuilding Washington's Transatlantic Alliance"
In an article for the National Interest, Stanley R. Sloan argues that the next president of the United States will need to rebuild the transatlantic relationship to address threats to Western security and fundamental values. In Ukraine, NATO and the EU need to support the reform of the country's political and economic system while holding off on the provision of lethal arms. To ensure a lasting defeat of ISIS, Western allies should engage Middle Eastern states and the broader international community to stabilize and govern retaken territory. While the next president must remember that the Russian agenda often runs contrary to that of the U.S., cooperation on managing strategic arms, promoting a peaceful end to the Syria conflict, counterterrorism and other issues is in America's interest. Click here for the full article.
New Book by Streit Council Advisory Board Member Kenneth Weisbrode
In Old Diplomacy Revisited: A Study in the Modern History of Diplomatic Transformers, historian Kenneth Weisbrode asserts that Old Diplomacyis not really that old—many of its concepts and methods date to the mid-nineteenth century—while the practices of New Diplomacy emerged only a couple of generations later. Moreover, "Diplomacy 2.0" and other variants of the post-Cold War era do not depart significantly from their twentieth-century predecessor: their forms, particularly in technology, have changed, but their substance has not. In this succinct overview, Weisbrode reminds us that to understand diplomatic transformations and their relevance to international affairs is to see diplomacy as an entrepreneurial art—and that, like most arts, it is adapted and re-adapted with reference to earlier forms. Diplomatic practice is always changing, and always continuous. To read more about this book, click here.
Kenneth Weisbrode, Ph.D., joins the Streit Council's Advisory Board. He is an Assistant Professor of History at Bilkent University, Turkey and has written and edited several books, including Old Diplomacy Revisited: A Study in the Modern History of Diplomatic Transformers; Churchill and the King: The Wartime Alliance of Winston Churchill and George VI; and The Atlantic Century: Four Generations of Extraordinary Diplomats who Forged America's Vital Alliance with Europe. He is also the co-founder of the Toynbee Prize Foundation's Network for the New Diplomatic History, and holds a Ph.D. in History from Harvard University.
New Book by Streit Council Board Member Richard Rosecrance
In The Resurgence of the West: How a Transatlantic Union Can Prevent War and Restore the United States and Europe, Richard Rosecrance calls for the United States to join forces with the European Union and create a transatlantic economic union. A U.S.-Europe community would unblock arteries of trade and investment, rejuvenate the West, and enable Western countries to deal with East Asian challenges from a position of unity and economic strength. Through this great merger the author offers a positive vision of the future in which members of a tightly knit Western alliance regain economic health and attract Eastern nations to join a new and worldwide international order. To read more about this book, click here.
At the Washington D.C. Summit on Cross Continental Cooperation,held by the Institute for Cultural Diplomacy from November 4-7, Streit Council President Richard Conn Henry reviewed the history of the Streit Council, starting with Clarence K. Streit's self-publication of Union Now just prior to World War II, and continuing with the passing of the Atlantic Union Resolution in 1964. Henry also expounded his idea on a possible Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that, if adopted, would lead to a federal union with the European Union. His proposal can be found here.
Brendan Simms, Ph.D., joins the Streit Council's Advisory Board. He is a Professor of the History of European International Relations at the University of Cambridge, and is the founder and Chairman of the Board of the think tank Project on Democratic Union, which supports a full political union of the Eurozone. He also founded and is the President of the Henry Jackson Society, a think tank dedicated to fostering a strong British and European commitment to liberty; constitutional democracy; human rights; governmental and institutional reform; a robust foreign, security, and defense policy; and the transatlantic alliance. His publications include Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire 1714-1783 (2008) and Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia (2001).
Transatlantic Relations and Global Governance News
Swedish parliament ratifies NATO accord amid Russia tensions
26 May 2016 – Reuters
Sweden's parliament ratified a deal that will grant NATO access to the country's territory in the event of a military conflict, in addition to access for training exercises. Swedish Defense Minister Peter Hultqvist stated that Sweden will remain non-aligned, and that no NATO troops will be allowed in the country without permission.
Estonia prime minister calls for constant NATO troop presence to deter Russia
26 May 2016 – Deutsche Welle
Estonian Prime Minister Taavi Roivas called for a NATO battalion to be stationed in all three Baltic republics. Rooivas argued that a heightened NATO presence in the countries, which will be decided upon during NATO's July summit, would reinforce the alliance's solidarity pledge.
EU Commission Cites Support for Bulgarian Gas Hub
26 May, 2016 – Novinite
Miguel Arias Cañete, European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy, expressed his belief that Bulgaria could become a natural gas leader in Europe. During a two day visit to Sofia, Cañete discussed the potential for Bulgaria to serve as a gas hub to the rest of Southern Europe by transmitting gas from the Black Sea. While Bulgaria has the ability to handle a large gas capacity and boasts a well-built domestic gas transmission system, construction on interconnection networks to neighboring countries is still needed. Cañete hopes Sofia can rise to the challenge of leading the project.
David Cameron: China must abide by ruling on South China Sea
25 May 2016 – The Guardian
UK Prime Minister David Cameron stated that China must abide by the outcome of international arbitration regarding its claims in the South China Sea. The ruling for the case, brought before the permanent court of arbitration in the Hague by the Philippines, is expected within the next few weeks. The Chinese ambassador in London stated last week that China will not feel bound by the arbitration, and it would not be in breach of international law if it rejects its findings.
Lifting of Vietnam Arms Ban Sparks War of Words in South China Sea
25 May 2016 – Radio Free Asia
Chinese state media claims that the lifting of a U.S. arms embargo on Vietnam exacerbates "strategic antagonism" between the U.S. and China, warning that Beijing could resort to militarization. Chinese military analysts have warned that the U.S. "pivot to Asia" increases the risk of accidental military engagement in the South China Sea.
Prime Minister: Vietnam Won’t Pursue Military Buildup in the South China Sea
25 May 2016 – The Diplomat
Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc announced that Vietnam does not wish to pursue military buildup in the South China Sea, and seeks a peaceful resolution with China over ongoing territorial disputes in the region. Phuc, who was elected in April, said that Vietnam's goal is to protect its sovereignty, beginning with peaceful and diplomatic measures. The remarks come shortly after a U.S. announcement of the end of a 41-year-old embargo on arms sales to the country.
Eastern NATO States Offer to Shore Up Baltics as Russia Fumes
25 May 2016 – Bloomberg
Defense ministers from the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia have agreed to create a joint military unit to strengthen NATO defense in the Baltics next year. The four countries, known as the Visegrad Four, will formally propose the creation of the rotational force during NATO's July summit in Warsaw.
Obama says U.S., Japan agree on strengthening defense
25 May 2016 – The Korea Herald
U.S. President Barack Obama stated that the U.S. and Japan will strengthen defense capabilities against North Korea during a joint press conference with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, following a summit in Japan. Obama said that the two countries had agreed to "continue to reinforce deterrence" and strengthen defense against the North Korean nuclear threat.
Pound may lose its reserve currency status on Brexit, S&P warns
25 May 2016 – Bloomberg
According to S&P Global Ratings, a British exit from the European Union may remove the pound sterling’s status as a reserve currency and even jeopardize the nation’s top AAA credit rating. London-based analyst Frank Gill adds that the pound’s status danger would stem from “deterring foreign direct investment and other capital inflows.” The Institute for Fiscal Studies also reported that a Brexit would add tens of billions of pounds to UK government borrowing, forcing austerity into the next decade.
Pak-China friendship has transformed into strategic partnership: President
25 May 2016 – Pakistan Observer
Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain officially stated that the relationship between Pakistan and China is a strategic partnership, aimed at encouraging development and stability between the two nations. At a ceremony celebrating the 65th anniversary of Pakistan-Chinese diplomatic relations, President Hussain was especially optimistic in the relationship as a source of progress through the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project. Hussain expressed hope that the partnership would serve as an example for global peace and stability.
Russia's Putin pardons Ukrainian pilot, sends her home in prisoner swap
25 May 2016 – Reuters
Ukrainian military pilot Nadiya Savchenko has arrived in Ukraine following her release in a prisoner swap with Russia. Savchenko was captured in 2014 while fighting separatists in eastern Ukraine and found guilty of complicity in the deaths of two Russian journalists. Her release is seen as a gesture of goodwill by Russia ahead of a European Union decision on the extension of sanctions against Russia.
Syrian airbase used by Russia damaged in Isis attack
25 May 2016 – The Guardian
U.S. intelligence reports that a Russian airbase in Syria was heavily damaged during attacks by the Islamic State. The attack, outside of IS-held territory, targeted the strategically significant base and coincided with a series of suicide bombings that killed more than 100 people on the Syrian coast.
Mikheil Saakashvili: “Ukraine's government has no vision for reform”
25 May 2016 – The Guardian
Mikheil Saakashvili, current governor of the Odessa region in Ukraine, has criticized the status of Ukraine's new government, claiming that it impedes reforms and progressive appointments. The former Georgian president stated that incomplete government reforms are perceived as failure and are discredited, leading to little progress.
Europe is reducing soldiers to “civilians in uniform,” General warns
25 May 2016 – The Telegraph
General Sir Michael Rose, the UK's former director of special forces, announced he supports a Brexit, claiming that the European Union undermines Britain's armed forces. Rose is one of 12 retired senior military leaders who are backing an organization seeking to encourage serving and inactive military personnel to vote for a Brexit.
Germany, France hold back NATO, EU ambitions in Libya
25 May 2016 – Reuters
Germany and France have deferred to the United Nations after scaling back commitments to aid Libya following a request by the Libyan prime minister for security training. The EU and NATO have agreed to help Tripoli in combating migrant smugglers and the Islamic State, but Germany seeks a UN mandate for military deployments abroad while France opposes the deployment of NATO combat troops.
Mexico and EU to start talks on updating trade deal in June
25 May 2016 – Reuters
Next month, Mexico and the EU will start updating their trade deal for the first time since 2000. Negotiations on agricultural and dairy products will probably take place. Mexico’s attempt to strengthen economic ties with EU may be due to concerns about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the U.S. and Canada that has been criticized by campaigns in recent U.S. presidential elections.
Eurozone approves new Greek aid package
24 May 2016 – CNBC
Eurogroup ministers have agreed to lend Greece a package of €10.3 billion loans. The IMF and the Eurogroup eventually came to an agreement to give Greece a two-year period debt relief. Officials hope that this package will bring Greece out of recession and bring back investor confidence in Greek economy.
Risks to Eurozone financial stability have increased, ECB warns
24 May 2016 – Reuters
The ECB warned on Tuesday of risks that may potentially damage the Eurozone economy in the near future: “…market turmoil, weak profits in the financial sector, excessive debt, and a growing shadow banking sector,” according to its newest Financial Stability Review (FSR). Economists expect the ECB to carry out monetary easing again by the end of the year. The ECB stressed the impact of bad loans.
TTIP: Good for the EU, Good for the U.S.
24 May 2016 – Global Trade Magazine
A 400-page study paper of Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) on TTIP by the European Commission was published last week, emphasizing the advantages that the trade deal will bring to Europe. The report says that the TTIP will bring GDP growth to both the EU and the U.S., including growth in both exports and imports on both sides. EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmström said that the TTIP and CETA are measures to make economic progress and maintain sustainable development.
Japan, Canada share “serious concerns” on South China Sea
24 May 2016 – Reuters
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stated that Japan and Canada share "serious concerns" over militarization in the South China Sea following talks with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. The joint news conference precedes a Group of Seven summit later this week, where maritime security will be a key issue.
Secretary General in Rome: Italy is a driving force within NATO
24 May 2016 – NATO News
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg lauded Italy as a "driving force" within the alliance, praising Italian contributions to NATO's missions in the Baltic and the Mediterranean. Stoltenberg also welcomed Italy's role in the alliance's new rapid Spearhead Force during a meeting with the Italian prime minister.
Russia Warns NATO Over Eastern Europe Military Buildup
24 May 2016 – International Business Times
Russia's permanent NATO representative cited the protection of Russian interests in the deployment of three military divisions along its border with Eastern Europe and the Baltics. NATO is soon expected to deploy four of its own battalions to the region, including forces from the U.S., Germany, and Britain.
Brexit would absolutely be applauded in Russia, says defense secretary
24 May 2016 – The Guardian
UK Defense Secretary Michael Fallon stated that a Brexit would be "extraordinarily irresponsible" in light of heightened tensions with Russia during an appearance before the House of Commons defense committee. Fallon claimed Britain is leading the EU's effort to impose sanctions on Russia, and that British business would suffer if sanctions were relaxed in the wake of a Brexit.
G7 statement: Finance ministers agreed to avoid competitive devaluation
24 May 2016 – Reuters
An official summary released on Tuesday showed that the finance ministers and other leaders of the G7 reaffirmed their commitments to existing pacts. These include pledges to not target exchange rates, avoid competitive currency devaluation, and generally work toward stable currency moves for global economic activity. Though Japan failed to gain support from the G7 countries for a more expansionary fiscal policy and earned a warning from the United States, the Japanese government stated that the document did not represent the G7 consensus.
G7 to express “strong opposition” to militarization of South China Sea
24 May 2016 – The Japan Times
G7 sources state that the group intends to express “strong opposition” to “unilateral actions that could alter the status quo.” This refers to island construction and militarization in the South China Sea, and is an indirect criticism of China’s activities in the region. While the U.S. and Japan are openly concerned about China’s maritime activities, European countries have been more focused on building economic relations with China and have therefore been hesitant to express the same disapproval.
Putin To Visit Greece This Week
24 May 2016 – Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Russian President Vladimir Putin will visit Greece on May 27-28, his first official trip to the EU in nearly a year. Putin will meet with the president and prime minister of Greece to discuss the two countries' economic relationship.
Russia, Ukraine commit to Minsk accords in call with France, Germany
24 May 2016 – Reuters
German, French, Russian, and Ukrainian leaders discussed preparations for elections in the separatist regions of eastern Ukraine, seeking to implement a key part of the Minsk peace agreements. Germany and France have repeatedly called on Ukraine and Russia to expedite steps in the peace process, and the discussion centered on security questions and preparations for local elections in conflict areas.
Obama in Vietnam backs peaceful South China Sea
24 May 2016 – Al Jazeera
U.S. President Barack Obama announced that territorial disputes must be "resolved peacefully" during a visit to Vietnam. The visit marks a new phase in U.S.-Vietnamese relations, as the countries have drawn closer due to growing Chinese militarization in the region.
Cheniere Marketing Predicts US LNG Will Be Competitive in EU, Long Term
23 May 2016 - Platts
Cheniere Marketing, a multinational LNG company, suggested that U.S. liquid natural gas (LNG) could be competitive with standard natural gas in the near future. LNG from the U.S. currently competes somewhat successfully with standard natural gas, which sells between $4-$4.50/MMBtu (one million British Thermal Units). The long term estimated price for LNG is between $7-$8/MMBtu, which would enable the EU to diversify gas sources. New infrastructure investments are needed throughout the EU to successfully transport the gas. Resistance to U.S. LNG, scattered throughout the continent, stems from the LNG’s source and method: shale fracking.
Brexit campaigns play NHS card
23 May 2016 – Politico
Both stay and leave campaigns in the Brexit debate are using Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) as their largest chips. The leave campaign argues that money used to fund the EU can be used on Britain’s NHS, while the stay campaign insists that leaving the bloc will damage Britain’s economy, risking the NHS. Debates over the whether the TTIP and migrant problems will harm the NHS is also heated.
Eurozone expected to release €10bn loans to Greece
23 May 2016 – RTE News
Greece is expected to receive the €10 billion loans from the Eurozone after concluding that it passed reform requirements. Greece has agreed to the contingency measures that would be enacted if it does not reach the goal of a 3.5% GDP surplus in 2018. Debt relief is still unlikely due to disagreement between Eurozone lenders and the IMF.
Sweden to vote on closer NATO ties
23 May 2016 – EurActiv
Swedish lawmakers are set to vote on a Host Nation Agreement with NATO on the 25th - a move toward closer cooperation with the alliance despite Sweden's opposition to joining the alliance outright. The agreement would provide a legal basis for Alliance forces to use Swedish airspace, waters, and territory in the event of a military conflict, but is contingent upon Sweden's consent.
Britain Says Macedonia Turmoil Is Damaging EU, NATO Hopes
23 May 2016 – ABC News
British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond warned Macedonia that its position as a potential EU and NATO member is damaged by its political turmoil. Hammond stated that Macedonia can make "no further progress towards collaboration" if its political conflict, linked to a wiretapping scandal, continues.
The G7 Agenda in Japan: Revive Global Prosperity
23 May 2016 – The Wall Street Journal
The G7 Ise-Shima Summit will take place on May 26-27 with a variety of global concerns on the agenda. For Prime Minister Abe of Japan, some key areas of focus will be global infrastructure, combating terrorism, global health, and international maritime laws. A central theme throughout will be revitalizing the world economy with improved economic opportunities, specifically for the promotion of free trade and investment, especially between the members of the G7.
No need for referendum on EU-U.S. trade deal, says Government
22 May 2016 – The Irish Times
Ireland’s Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation said that there is no need to hold a referendum for the TTIP concerning the investment court system that would be created, since it does not affect the Constitution. The TTIP still faces criticism on food security and healthcare.
Poroshenko, Kiska discuss creation of East European gas hub
23 May 2016 - Interfax Ukraine
Petro Poroshenko and Andrej Kiska, the respective presidents of Ukraine and Slovakia, discussed economic and energy issues at the UN World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul earlier today. Ukraine’s presidential press noted that “the creation of an East European gas hub” was on the agenda. Ukraine and Slovakia are two of the biggest opponents of the proposed Russian Nord Stream 2 pipeline in the Baltic. Slovakia will assume the EU presidency of the Council of Europe in July.
ENI CEO: Nord Stream 2 would raise gas prices in Italy
23 May, 2016 – Reuters
The CEO of Italy’s largest oil and gas company, Eni S.p.A., believes that the Nord Stream 2 pipeline would increase gas prices in Italy. Claudio Descalzi noted that the new northern route, expected to transport 110 billion cubic meters of gas annually, creates a gas hub in the north of Europe at the expense of most of Italy. Italy and other nations outside Northern Europe face the threat of limited supply and higher transit fees with the project’s completion.
China to boost relations, cooperation with Kyrgyzstan: FM
23 May 2016 – Xinhua
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi stated that China will boost its bilateral relationship with Kyrgyzstan in all fields. The two nations recently established a strategic partnership, and Wang added that there will be new development opportunities for the two nations to cooperate on. Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambayev said that the two nations will work together to build the Silk Road Economic Belt, advance the budding strategic partnership, and fight the “three evil forces” of terrorism, separatism, and extremism.
Italian FinMin Padoan says EU leaders must produce solutions or risk more “Brexits”
22 May 2016 - CNBC
Italy's Finance Minister Pier Carlo Padoan said that the EU’s handling of migration and economic stagnation problems are leading to more doubt about the system’s effectiveness, and many countries such as Britain are expecting to seek solutions outside of the bloc. Paodan stressed on the importance of Britain’s EU referendum, and said that leader’ should “upgrade and update” their strategies and policies.
“One Belt One Road” initiative achieves series of important early-stage harvest
22 May 2016 – Xinhua
Chinese President Xi Jinping expressed positive hopes for the progress of the One Belt One Road initiative in a recent meeting with Chinese and Kazakh journalists in Almaty. President Xi paid particular attention to the economics corridor under construction and lauded the trains that have successfully traveled between China and Europe. These successes have increased trade and investment within the region, with Chinese enterprises making direct investments to 49 countries along the route.
MH17 families sue Russia and Putin for compensation
22 May 2016 – The Guardian
An Australian law firm filed a legal compensation claim against Russia in the European Court of Human Rights over the downing of a Malaysian Airlines jetliner over pro-Russian rebel territory in Ukraine in 2014. Court documents allege that the Russian government failed to conduct internal investigations into the crash, and sought to keep its involvement hidden.
NATO chief: No plans for combat troops in Libya
21 May 2016 – Al Jazeera
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg stated that NATO is not planning combat operations in Libya, focusing instead on supporting efforts to build defense institutions and capacities. Stoltenberg said that NATO is prepared to assist Libya's new government, which was formed under a UN-mediated peace deal last year, but "will not do anything without request from that government."
China warns Taiwan off independence moves
21 May 2016 – The Straits Times
China warned Taiwan that there will be "no peace and stability" across the Taiwan Strait in the event of a push for Taiwanese independence, a spokesman for China's Taiwan Affairs Office announcing that the mainland would oppose any moves toward separatism. The statement follows the new Taiwanese president's failure to mention China and Taiwan's 1992 Consensus agreement in her inauguration speech.
Russia-NATO Relations: Normalization Of Ties Highly Unlikely, Russian Envoy Says
21 May 2016 – International Business Times
Russia's Permanent Representative to NATO has stated that the likelihood of normalization of ties between the alliance and Russia is bleak, stating that "NATO unilaterally severed and terminated all cooperation projects" that served to strengthen NATO and Russian security. The official said there are no signs NATO plans to return to normal interaction, and that this narrows the opportunities for political dialogue.
U.S. lawmakers seek NATO ally status for India
21 May 2016 – The Times of India
U.S. lawmakers approved a defense bill that includes an amendment to bring India on par with NATO allies in its defense ties with the U.S. The amendment includes measures for the sale of defense equipment and technology transfer, with U.S. Congressmen stating that the step is necessary in fostering a U.S.-India strategic partnership to ensure national security and economic growth.
Vietnam Arms Embargo to Be Fully Lifted, Obama Says in Hanoi
21 May 2016 – The New York Times
President Barack Obama announced that the U.S. will end its embargo on the sales of lethal military equipment to Vietnam. The lifting of the embargo, which has been in place since the Vietnam War, is contingent upon Vietnam improving human rights, but its removal is seen partly as a response to Chinese buildup in the South China Sea.
G7 takes aim at terrorist financing; rifts on policy remain
21 May 2016 – The Telegraph
Though the G7 stands together in fighting terrorist financing and tax evasion, coordinated action on policies seems out of reach. The G7 finance ministers and central bank governors were able to create an “action plan” targeting and freezing the actions of terrorist financial networks, but monetary policy on long-term growth dissolved into discussions of the need for varying strategies to fit each nation’s unique situations.
Russia Says It Beefed up Its Military in Southwest
21 May 2016 – ABC News
Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu says that the Russian military has strengthened forces in the country's southwestern region, installing long-range weapons as a response to "attempts by some nations to expand their military presence" near Russia's borders. The statement follows the deployment of additional military equipment to the Baltics and Central Europe, as well as a newly operational U.S. missile defense site in Romania.
China, Argentina to deepen, develop strategic relations
20 May 2016 – Xinhua Net
The foreign ministers of China and Argentina recently met and discussed ways to deepen their bilateral strategic relationship. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi stated that China will continue to support Argentina’s efforts in the development projects of Latin America, and appreciates Argentina’s adherence to the One China policy. Argentinian Foreign Minister Susanna Malcorra added that the two discussed regional, bilateral, and multilateral issues of common interest to both sides.
“Strong Commitment from NATO” in Afghanistan, Dunford Says
20 May 2016 – Department of Defense
U.S. Joint Chiefs Chairman Joe Dunford reiterated NATO's commitment to its Resolute Support mission in Afghanistan, stating that most of the alliance's members have a vested interest in seeing stability in the country. The statement followed a meeting of NATO's Military Committee/Chiefs of Defense in Brussels last week.
NATO may rely on five battalions to deter Russia, Britain says
20 May 2016 – Reuters
British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond announced last Friday that the NATO military buildup in Eastern Europe could include up to 3,500 troops, noting that the deployments would serve as a deterrent force and "trip wire" of any potential threat to the alliance. NATO defense ministers will decide on precise troop levels next month, but have stated that no large forces will be permanently stationed due to the potential for Russian escalation.
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